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The intersection of a set of halfspaces is a polytope. The polytope may be unbounded. See Preparata & Shamos ['85] for a discussion. In low dimensions, halfspace intersection may be used for linear programming.

- Print the intersection of the facets of a cube.
rbox cgenerates the vertices of a cube.qconvex FVreturns a feasible point for halfspace intersection. This feasible or interior point,qconvex FV, is the average of the cube's vertices (i.e., the origin).qconvex nreturns the halfspaces that define the cube.qhalf Fpcomputes the intersection of the halfspaces about the feasible point. The intersection is the vertices of the original cube.- Compute the intersection of the facets of a cube and print a summary ('s'). Option 'FQ' prints the qconvex command as an input comment for the summary. 'qhalf Hn,n,n' specifies the feasible point as
[0.1, 0.1, 0.1]. 'qhalf H0' would specify the feasible point as the origin.- Print the intersection of the facets of a cube and a diamond. There are 24 facets and 14 intersection points. Four facets define each diamond vertex. Six facets define each cube vertex.
- Same as above except triangulate before computing the intersection points. Three facets define each intersection point. There are two duplicates of the diamond and four duplicates of the cube.
- Print the intersection of the facets of the convex hull of 10 cospherical points. Include the intersection points and the neighboring intersections. As in the previous examples, the intersection points are nearly the same as the original input points.

In Qhull, a *halfspace* is defined by the points on or below a hyperplane.
The distance of each point to the hyperplane is less than or equal to zero.

Qhull computes a halfspace intersection by the geometric duality between points and halfspaces. See halfspace examples, qhalf notes, and option 'p' of qhalf outputs.

Qhalf's outputs are the intersection
points (Fp) and
the neighboring intersection points (Fn).
For random inputs, halfspace
intersections are usually defined by more than *d* halfspaces. See the sphere example.

The identity pipeline for Qhull starts with points, produces the halfspaces for their convex hull, and intersects these halfspaces, returning the original points. For example, 'rbox c' is the unit cube.

rbox c | qconvex FV n | qhalf Fp 3 8 -0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 -0.5 0.5 -0.5 0.5 0.5 -0.5 0.5 -0.5 0.5 -0.5 -0.5 0.5 0.5 -0.5 -0.5 -0.5 -0.5 -0.5

You can try triangulated output ('Qt') and joggled input ('QJ'). It demonstrates that triangulated output is more accurate than joggled input.

If you use 'Qt' (triangulated output), all halfspace intersections are simplicial (e.g., three halfspaces per intersection in 3-d). In 3-d, if more than three halfspaces intersect at the same point, triangulated output will produce duplicate intersections, one for each additional halfspace. See the third example, or add 'Qt' to the sphere example.

If you use 'QJ' (joggled input), all halfspace intersections are simplicial. This may lead to nearly identical intersections. For example, either replace 'Qt' with 'QJ' above, or add 'QJ' to the sphere example. See Merged facets or joggled input.

The 'qhalf' program is equivalent to
'qhull H'. It disables the following Qhull
options: *d n v Qbb QbB Qf Qg Qm
Qr Qv Qx Qz TR E V Fa FA FC FD FS Ft FV Gt Q0,etc*.

**Copyright © 1995-2020 C.B. Barber**

qhalf -- halfspace intersection about a point. input (stdin): [dimension, 1, interior point] dimension+1, number of halfspaces, coefficients+offset comments start with a non-numeric character options: Hn,n - specify coordinates of interior point Qt - triangulated output QJ - joggled input instead of merged facets Tv - verify result: structure, convexity, and redundancy . - concise list of all options - - one-line description of each option -? - this message -V - version output options (subset): s - summary of results (default) Fp - intersection coordinates Fv - non-redundant halfspaces incident to each intersection Fx - non-redundant halfspaces G - Geomview output (dual convex hull) m - Mathematica output (dual convex hull) o - OFF file format (dual convex hull) QVn - print intersections for halfspace n, -n if not TI file - input file, may be enclosed in single quotes TO file - output file, may be enclosed in single quotes examples: rbox d | qconvex FQ n | qhalf s H0,0,0 Fp rbox c | qconvex FQ FV n | qhalf s i rbox c | qconvex FQ FV n | qhalf s o

The input data on

stdinconsists of:

- [optional] feasible point

- dimension
- 1
- coordinates of feasible point
- dimension + 1
- number of halfspaces
- halfspace coefficients followed by offset
Use I/O redirection (e.g., qhalf < data.txt), a pipe (e.g., rbox c | qconvex FV n | qhalf), or the 'TI' option (e.g., qhalf TI data.txt).

Qhull needs a feasible point to compute the halfspace intersection. A feasible point is clearly inside all of the halfspaces. A point is

insidea halfspace if its distance to the corresponding hyperplane is negative.The feasible point may be listed at the beginning of the input (as shown above). If not, option 'Hn,n' defines the feasible point as [n,n,0,...] where

0is the default coordinate (e.g., 'H0' is the origin). Use linear programming if you do not know the feasible point (see halfspace notes),The input to qhalf is a set of halfspaces that are defined by their hyperplanes. Each halfspace is defined by

dcoefficients followed by a signed offset. This defines a linear inequality. The coefficients define a vector that is normal to the halfspace. The vector may have any length. If it has length one, the offset is the distance from the origin to the halfspace's boundary. Points in the halfspace have a negative distance to the hyperplane. The distance from the feasible point to each halfspace is likewise negative.The halfspace format is the same as Qhull's output options 'n', 'Fo', and 'Fi'. Use option 'Fd' to use cdd format for the halfspaces.

For example, here is the input for computing the intersection of halfplanes that form a cube.

rbox c | qconvex FQ FV n TO data

RBOX c | QCONVEX FQ FV n 3 1 0 0 0 4 6 0 0 -1 -0.5 0 -1 0 -0.5 1 0 0 -0.5 -1 0 0 -0.5 0 1 0 -0.5 0 0 1 -0.5qhalf s Fp < data

Halfspace intersection by the convex hull of 6 points in 3-d: Number of halfspaces: 6 Number of non-redundant halfspaces: 6 Number of intersection points: 8 Statistics for: RBOX c | QCONVEX FQ FV n | QHALF s Fp Number of points processed: 6 Number of hyperplanes created: 11 Number of distance tests for qhull: 11 Number of merged facets: 1 Number of distance tests for merging: 45 CPU seconds to compute hull (after input): 0 3 3 8 -0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 -0.5 0.5 -0.5 0.5 0.5 -0.5 0.5 -0.5 0.5 -0.5 -0.5 0.5 -0.5 -0.5 -0.5 0.5 -0.5 -0.5

The following options control the output for halfspace intersection.

Intersections- FN
- list intersection points for each halfspace. The first line is the number of halfspaces. Each remaining line starts with the number of intersection points. Redundant halfspaces have 0 intersection points. For the cube example, each halfspace has four intersection points.
- Fn
- list neighboring intersections for each intersection point. The first line is the number of intersection points. Each following line starts with the number of neighboring intersections. For the cube example, each intersection point has three neighboring intersections.
In 3-d, a non-simplicial intersection has more than three neighboring intersections. For random data (e.g., the sphere example), non-simplicial intersections are the norm. Option 'Qt' produces three neighboring intersections per intersection by duplicating the intersection points. Option QJ' produces three neighboring intersections per intersection by joggling the hyperplanes and hence their intersections.

- Fp
- print intersection coordinates. The first line is the dimension and the second line is the number of intersection points. The following lines are the coordinates of each intersection point. The "infinity" point, [-10.101,-10.101,...] (qh_INFINITE), indicates an unbounded intersection.
- FI
- list intersection IDs. The first line is the number of intersections. The IDs follow, one per line.
Halfspaces- Fx
- list non-redundant halfspaces. The first line is the number of non-redundant halfspaces. The other lines list one halfspace per line. A halfspace is
non-redundantif it defines a facet of the intersection. Redundant halfspaces are ignored. For the cube example, none of the halfspaces are redundant.- Fv
- list non-redundant halfspaces incident to each intersection point. The first line is the number of non-redundant halfspaces. Each remaining line starts with the number of non-redundant halfspaces incident to that point. For the cube example, each intersection point is incident to three halfspaces.
- i
- list non-redundant halfspaces incident to each intersection point. The first line is the number of intersection points. Each remaining line lists the incident, non-redundant halfspaces for that intersection point. For the cube example, each intersection point is incident to three halfspaces.
- Fc
- list coplanar halfspaces for each intersection point. The first line is the number of intersection points. Each remaining line starts with the number of coplanar halfspaces. A coplanar halfspace is listed for one intersection point even though it is coplanar to multiple intersection points.
- Qi Fc
- list redundant halfspaces for each intersection point. The first line is the number of intersection points. Each remaining line starts with the number of redundant halfspaces. Use options 'Qc Qi Fc' to list coplanar and redundant halfspaces.
General- s
- print summary for the halfspace intersection. Use 'Fs' if you need numeric data.
- o
- print vertices and facets of the dual convex hull. The first line is the dimension. The second line is the number of vertices, facets, and ridges. The vertex coordinates are next, followed by the facets, one per line.
- p
- print vertex coordinates of the dual convex hull. Each vertex corresponds to a non-redundant halfspace. Its coordinates are the negative of the hyperplane's coefficients divided by the offset plus the inner product of the coefficients and the feasible point (-c/(b+a.p). Options 'p Qc' includes coplanar halfspaces. Options 'p Qi' includes redundant halfspaces.
- m
- Mathematica output for the dual convex hull in 2-d or 3-d.
- FM
- Maple output for the dual convex hull in 2-d or 3-d.
- G
- Geomview output for the dual convex hull in 2-d, 3-d, or 4-d.

These options provide additional control:

- Qt
- triangulated output. If a 3-d intersection is defined by more than three hyperplanes, Qhull produces duplicate intersections -- one for each extra hyperplane.
- QRn
- randomly rotate the input with a random seed of n. If n=0, the seed is the time. If n=-1, use time for the random seed, but do not rotate the input.
- QJ
- joggle the input instead of merging facets. In 3-d, this guarantees that each intersection is defined by three hyperplanes.
- f
- facet dump. Print the data structure for each intersection (i.e., facet)
- TFn
- report summary after constructing
nintersections- QVn
- select intersection points for halfspace
n(marked 'good')- QGn
- select intersection points that are visible to halfspace
n(marked 'good'). Use-nfor the remainder.- Qbk:0Bk:0
- remove the k-th coordinate from the input. This computes the halfspace intersection in one lower dimension.
- Tv
- verify result
- TI file
- input data from file. The filename may not use spaces or quotes.
- TO file
- output results to file. Use single quotes if the filename contains spaces (e.g.,
TO 'file with spaces.txt'- Qs
- search all points for the initial simplex. If Qhull can not construct an initial simplex, it reports a descriptive message. Usually, the point set is degenerate and one or more dimensions should be removed ('Qbk:0Bk:0'). If not, use option 'Qs'. It performs an exhaustive search for the best initial simplex. This is expensive is high dimensions.

To view the results with Geomview, compute the convex hull of the intersection points ('qhull FQ H0 Fp | qhull G'). See Halfspace examples.

See halfspace intersection for precision issues related to qhalf.

If you do not know a feasible point for the halfspaces, use linear programming to find one. Assume,

nhalfspaces defined by:aj*x1+bj*x2+cj*x3+dj<=0, j=1..n. Perform the following linear program:max(x5) aj*x1+bj*x2+cj*x3+dj*x4+x5<=0, j=1..n

Then, if

[x1,x2,x3,x4,x5]is an optimal solution withx4>0andx5>0we get:aj*(x1/x4)+bj*(x2/x4)+cj*(x3/x4)+dj<=(-x5/x4) j=1..n and (-x5/x4)<0,

and conclude that the point

[x1/x4,x2/x4,x3/x4]is inside all the halfspaces. Sincex5is optimal, this feasible point is "clearly inside" the halfspaces (good for precision errors).After finding a feasible point, the rest of the intersection algorithm is from Preparata & Shamos ['85, p. 316, "A simple case ..."]. Translate the halfspaces so that the feasible point is the origin. Calculate the dual polytope. The dual polytope is the convex hull of the vertices dual to the original faces in regard to the unit sphere (i.e., halfspaces at distance

dfrom the origin are dual to vertices at distance1/d). Then calculate the resulting polytope, which is the dual of the dual polytope, and translate the origin back to the feasible point [S. Spitz, S. Teller, D. Strawn].

The following terminology is used for halfspace intersection in Qhull. This is the hardest structure to understand. The underlying structure is a convex hull with one vertex per non-redundant halfspace. See convex hull conventions and Qhull's data structures.

feasible or interior point- a point in the intersection of the halfspaces. Qhull needs a feasible point to compute the intersection. See halfspace input.halfspace-dcoordinates for the normal and a signed offset. The distance to the feasible point is negative.non-redundant halfspace- a halfspace that defines an output facetvertex- a dual vertex in the convex hull corresponding to a non-redundant halfspacecoplanar point- the dual point corresponding to a similar halfspaceinterior point- the dual point corresponding to a redundant halfspaceintersection point- the intersection ofdor more non-redundant halfspacesfacet- a dual facet in the convex hull corresponding to an intersection pointnon-simplicial facet- more thandhalfspaces intersect at a pointgood facet- an intersection point that satisfies restriction 'QVn', etc.

qhalf -- compute the intersection of halfspaces about a point http://www.qhull.org input (stdin): optional interior point: dimension, 1, coordinates first lines: dimension+1 and number of halfspaces other lines: halfspace coefficients followed by offset comments: start with a non-numeric character options: Hn,n - specify coordinates of interior point Qc - keep coplanar halfspaces Qi - keep other redundant halfspaces QJ - joggled input instead of merged facets Qt - triangulated output Qhull control options: Qa - allow input with fewer or more points than coordinates Qbk:0Bk:0 - remove k-th coordinate from input QJn - randomly joggle input in range [-n,n] QRn - random rotation (n=seed, n=0 time, n=-1 time/no rotate) Qs - search all halfspaces for the initial simplex Qhull extra options: QGn - print intersection if visible to halfspace n, -n for not QVn - print intersections for halfspace n, -n if not Qw - allow option warnings Q12 - allow wide facets and wide dupridge Q14 - merge pinched vertices that create a dupridge T options: TFn - report summary when n or more facets created TI file - input file, may be enclosed in single quotes TO file - output file, may be enclosed in single quotes Ts - statistics Tv - verify result: structure, convexity, and in-circle test Tz - send all output to stdout Trace options: T4 - trace at level n, 4=all, 5=mem/gauss, -1= events Ta - annotate output with message codes TAn - stop qhull after adding n vertices TCn - stop qhull after building cone for point n TVn - stop qhull after adding point n, -n for before Tc - check frequently during execution Tf - flush each qh_fprintf for debugging segfaults TPn - turn on tracing when point n added to hull TMn - turn on tracing at merge n TWn - trace merge facets when width > n Precision options: Cn - radius of centrum (roundoff added). Merge facets if non-convex An - cosine of maximum angle. Merge facets if cosine > n or non-convex C-0 roundoff, A-0.99/C-0.01 pre-merge, A0.99/C0.01 post-merge Rn - randomly perturb computations by a factor of [1-n,1+n] Un - max distance below plane for a new, coplanar halfspace Wn - min facet width for outside halfspace (before roundoff) Output formats (may be combined; if none, produces a summary to stdout): f - facet dump G - Geomview output (dual convex hull) i - non-redundant halfspaces incident to each intersection m - Mathematica output (dual convex hull) o - OFF format (dual convex hull: dimension, points, and facets) p - vertex coordinates of dual convex hull (coplanars if 'Qc' or 'Qi') s - summary (stderr) More formats: Fc - count plus redundant halfspaces for each intersection - Qc (default) for coplanar and Qi for other redundant Fd - use cdd format for input (homogeneous with offset first) FF - facet dump without ridges FI - ID of each intersection Fm - merge count for each intersection (511 max) FM - Maple output (dual 2-d or 3-d convex hull) Fn - count plus neighboring intersections for each intersection FN - count plus intersections for each halfspace FO - options and precision constants Fp - dim, count, and intersection coordinates FP - nearest halfspace and distance for each redundant halfspace FQ - command used for qhalf Fs - summary: #int (8), dim, #halfspaces, #non-redundant, #intersections output: #non-redundant, #intersections, #coplanar halfspaces, #non-simplicial intersections #real (2), max outer plane, min vertex Fv - count plus non-redundant halfspaces for each intersection Fx - non-redundant halfspaces Geomview output (2-d, 3-d and 4-d; dual convex hull) Ga - all points (i.e., transformed halfspaces) as dots Gp - coplanar points and vertices as radii Gv - vertices (i.e., non-redundant halfspaces) as spheres Gc - centrums GDn - drop dimension n in 3-d and 4-d output Gh - hyperplane intersections Gi - inner planes (i.e., halfspace intersections) only Gn - no planes Go - outer planes only Gr - ridges Print options: PAn - keep n largest facets (i.e., intersections) by area Pdk:n- drop facet if normal[k] <= n (default 0.0) PDk:n- drop facet if normal[k] >= n PFn - keep facets whose area is at least n Pg - print good facets (needs 'QGn' or 'QVn') PG - print neighbors of good facets PMn - keep n facets with most merges Po - force output. If error, output neighborhood of facet Pp - do not report precision problems . - list of all options - - one line descriptions of all options -? - help with examples -V - version

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Created: Sept. 25, 1995 --- Last modified: see top